PEKKA was originally developed in the year 2000, from the initial idea of the National Commission on Stop Violence Against Women (KOMNAS PEREMPUAN), to document the life of the widows in the conflict region, and the intention of the Kecamatan Development Program (PPK) to respond to the request of the widows who are the victims of the conflict in Aceh, to get access to resources, in order to overcome their economic problems and trauma. This project was originally named the "widows project" which was fully supported by a grant from the Japan Social Development Fund through the Trust Fund of the World Bank. KOMNAS PEREMPUAN then asked Nani Zulminarni, at that time the chair person of the Center for Women Resources Development (PPSW), to be the Coordinator of this program.
Through the process of reflection and intensive discussions with various parties, Nani then proposed to integrate both of these original ideas into a more comprehensive empowerment program. For the purpose, the theme and title of the "Widows Project" or the "Project for Widows" were changed to sound more provocative and ideological., ie. by putting the widows in a better position, role and responsibility as the head of the family, rather than as poor/ pitiful, humble, helpless and useless women. In addition, this project is expected to also be able to make social changes by raising the prestige of widows in the society. Therefore, Nani proposed to name the project "The Female Headed Family Empowerment Program" or abbreviated the PEKKA Program, which was agreed by all parties. Later on, the word Pekka is also used as the terminology for Women Headed Families or Perempuan Kepala Keluarga in Indonesian language.
Why Women Head of Family (Pekka)?
Number of household headed by women in Indonesia since 1985 (BPS Indonesia)
Susenas (National Socio-Economic Survey) data in 2014 released by BPS (Central Bureau of Statistics) revealed that 14.84% of households are headed by women. BPS data similarly showed that since 1985 the share of families led by women has consistently increased to an average of 0.1% each year. SPKBK (Community-based Welfare Monitoring System Survey) conducted by PEKKA National Secretariat in 111 villages across 17 targeted provinces found that in every four households, one is headed by a woman. Women become household heads for various reasons, including due to the death of their spouses, divorced, unmarried, polygamous husband, husband has migrated to work elsewhere, permanently ill husband, and unemployed husband. Marriage Law No. 1/1974 on the other hand explicitly mentions husbands or men as the heads of household, and this is reflected in the entire social, economic and political systems. As a consequence, women are not recognized as household heads, leading to discrimination in their social and political life.
PEKKA’s SPKBK survey also showed that nearly half (49%) of families at the lowest welfare level are headed by women. Women household heads are typically aged 18-65 supporting 1-6 dependents. They earn a livelihood in the informal sector, either as farmhands, sellers and craftswomen, bringing in an average daily income of only Rp 10,000. These women are poorly educated where more than half (57%) are illiterate. At least 78% of Pekka (Indonesian abbreviation for women heads of household) are divorcees who have endured domestic violence and only 41% of their marriages are registered.
Recognizing the existence of female household heads, fulfilling their rights and positioning them on par with others can raise their level of integrity and minimize families’ vulnerabilities toward life’s ever increasing economic, political and social challenges.
Who are Women Household Heads (Pekka)?
“The head of a household is the income earner in the family or a person regarded as the household head” (BPS).
According to PEKKA, women heads of household are women who carry out their roles and responsibilities as wage earner, household manager, sustainer of the family and decision maker.
In line with this, PEKKA therefore organizes and facilitates women household heads with the following backgrounds:
• Women left by/divorced from the husband
• Single women or unmarried and responsible for dependents
• Married women, but for one reason or the other, the husband is incapable of functioning as the head of the household
• Married women, but the husband does not permanently live in the same roof due to migration or in a polygamous relationship
What is PEKKA's purpose?
PEKKA envisions to empower female heads of households in contributing towards building a prosperous, just, gender-justice and dignified society.
To achieve this vision, PEKKA works toward making the following missions real:
• To improve the standard of living and well-being of women household heads
• To open Pekka’s access to different sources of livelihood
• To build Pekka’s critical awareness toward equality in roles, position and status, and in participating in the social and political life
• To promote Pekka’s engagement in various processes in the social, economic, political and cultural life
• To strengthen Pekka’s control over decision-making processes at the household to State level.
What is PEKKA strategy?
What is PEKKA theory of Change?
What is PEKKA’s framework?