More than half of Women Heads of Family (Pekka) subsist at the lowest level of welfare
Using household as the unit of welfare analysis means the likelihood of leaving out Women Heads of Family (WHF), women as the primary income earner in Men Heads of Family (WMHF) and Pekka were not recorded, turning them into the hidden poor.
Women Heads of Family (Pekka) comprise of Women Heads of Family or WHF (17.3%) and women as the primary income earner in Men Heads of Family or WMHF (5.8%)
Access to social protection programs among Women Heads of Family (WHF) and Men Heads of Family (MHF) is relatively balanced. Raskin (rice subsidies), Jamkesmas (health insurance for the poor) and BLT (cash transfer) are more likely to be accessed by WHF.
Ownership of identity card and family register among Women Heads of Family (WHF) is lower than for Men Heads of Family (MHF).
Ownership of marriage certificate among Women Heads of Family (WHF) is lower than for Men Heads of Family (MHF), both in total and in the first quintile.
At the lowest level of welfare, ownership of divorce certificate among divorced Women Heads of Family (WHF) is lower than for Men Heads of Family (MHF).
Ownership of birth certificate remains low. The lower the level of household welfare, the lower the level of ownership of birth certificate in every age group. Ownership of birth certificate among Women Heads of Family (WHF) is lower than for Men Heads of Family (MHF).
Over half (57%) of Women Heads of Family (WHF) are illiterate.
The majority of household heads are poorly educated. There is a significant gap in the educational attainment of female and male heads of household, whereby WHFHs are more likely to have lower educational attainment compared to MHFs.
The higher the level of welfare, the lower the number of household heads who cannot read and write in the Indonesian language, and the narrower the divide between WHF and MHF.
The higher the level of education, the lower the net enrolment ratio (NER). NER for children in families headed by women (WHF)is lower compared to children in families headed by men (MHF).
Boys in families headed by women (WHF) at the lowest level of welfare are more likely to discontinue their education at higher levels compared to others.
The level of continuing education to lower secondary is higher than upper secondary, and boys are more likely to continue their education than girls in families at the lowest level of welfare, and particularly the highest in Women Heads of Family (WHF).
The most preferred place of treatment is in facilities other than hospitals. The number of Women Heads of Family (WHF) who seek treatment at the hospital is lower than for Men Heads of Family (MHF)
Treatment costs are mostly paid out from the patient’s own pocket. The number of Women Heads of Family (WHF) who pay for their medical treatment from government services such as Jjamkesmas (health insurance for the poor) is higher than Men Heads of Family (MHF)
In every one hundred deaths among women, 12 women are related to reproductive health
The breastfeeding rate in families headed by women (WHF) is lower than in families headed by men (MHF).
Polygamous marriage tends to lead to the worsening of the lives of families, as experienced by both men and women.
Women make the decisions when they assume headship of the household. Nevertheless, in families headed by men (MHF), women are involved in decision making specifically on their traditional role as home-maker.
Two in every 100 marriages are polygamous. The higher the level of welfare of MHF, the higher the rate of polygamous marriage. The lower the level of welfare of WHFs, the higher the rate of polygamous marriage.
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In every 100 families, 4 of them have endured domestic violence, the most dominant form of which is psychological and physical abuse inflicted on wives.
Child marriage continues to be a persistent trend in Indonesia. The enforcement of the Child Protection Law can reduce the rate of early marriage, primarily among girls.
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